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20th century




20th century

21st century

Solo repertoire


Alto flute

Bass flute

Varèse Edgar

Aitken, Robert

Arnold, Malcolm

Barber, Samuel

Bartók, Béla Viktor János

Beaser, Robert

Bennet, Richard Rodney

Berio, Luciano

Bernstein, Leonard

Bloch, Ernest

Bolling, Claude

Boulanger, Marie-Juliette

Bourdin, Roger

Bozza, Eugène Joseph

Brown, Elizabeth

Brun, Georges

Burton, Eldin

Büsser, Henri

Camus, Pierre

Carter, Elliott

Casella, Alfredo

Clarke, Ian

Colquhoun, Michael

Copland, Aaron

Corigliano, John

Dahl, Walter Ingolf Marcus

Damase, Jean-Michel

Davidovsky, Mario

Debussy, Claude

Del Tredici, David

Denisov, Edison

Dick, Robert

Dohnányi, Ernő

Dutilleux, Henri

Enescu, George

Feld, Jindřich

Ferroud, Pierre-Octave

Foote, Arthur

Foss, Lukas

Françaix, Jean

Fukushima, Kazuo

Gaubert, Philippe

Gieseking, Walter

Gordeli, Otar

Griffes, Charles Tomlinson

Grinblat, Romuald

Grovlez, Gabriel

Guarnieri, Mozart Camargo

Hanson, Howard Harold

Harsányi, Tibor

Harty, Hamilton

Heiss, John

Heith, David

Higdon, Jennifer

Hindemith, Paul

Honegger, Arthur

Hoover, Katherine

Hosokawa, Toshio

Hovhaness, Alan

Hüe, Georges Adolphe

Ibert, Jacques

Ichiyanagi, Toshi

Ittzés, Gergely

Jacob, Gordon

Jemnitz, Sándor

Jirák, Karel Boleslav

Jolivet, André

Karg-Elert, Sigfrid

Kennan, Kent Wheeler

Kornauth, Egon

La Montaine, John

Liebermann, Lowell

Martin, Frank

Martino, Donald

Martinů, Bohuslav

Messiaen, Olivier

Mihalovici, Marcel

Milhaud, Darius

Mouquet, Jules

Mower, Mike

Muczynski, Robert

Nielsen, Carl

Offermans, Wil

Piazzolla, Astor

Piston, Walter

Poulenc, Francis

Prokofiev, Sergey

Rachmaninoff, Sergei

Ran, Shulamit

Ravel, Maurice

Reynolds, Verne

Rivier, Jean

Rota, Nino

Roussel, Albert

Rutter, John

Saariaho, Kaija

Sancan, Pierre

Schulhoff, Erwin

Schwantner, Joseph

Sciarrino, Salvatore

Shostakovich, Dmitri

Sibelius, Jean

Tailleferre, Germaine

Takemitsu, Tōru

Taktakishvili, Otar

Varèse, Edgar

Vasks, Pēteris

Weigl, Vally

Weinberg, Mieczysław

Williams, Ralph Vaughan

Yun, Isang

Density 21.5 for Flute solo

Density 21.5 for Flute solo

By Varèse Edgar

E. Varèse: Density 21.5 for solo flute was written in 1936 upon request by French flutist Georges Barrère who wanted a special composition for the premiere of his platinum flute. Since the density of platinum used for such flute is close to 21.5 grams per cmᶟ Varèse used that fact for the name of the composition. The piece consists of two parts: modal and atonal. Varèse made a revised version of this composition in 1946.

Peter-Lucas Graf

1989, Claves records

Density 21.5

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Jacques Zoon

1998, Decca / Universal

Density 21.6

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Philippe Bernold

2001, live at the Théatre des Champs Elysées, Paris

Density 21.7

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Varèse Edgar

Edgar Varèse (1883-1965) was a French-born American composer, known as “organized sound” composer – his music was based on a conception that “sound is a living matter”. The elements of his music were looked upon as “sound-masses”, like crystals, and the music is “organized noise”.
Born in Paris, he grew up in Turin where he took his music lessons from Giovanni Bolzoni, the director of Turin Conservatory. Influenced by his father who was an Italian engineer, Varèse studied engineering at the Polytechnic of Turin. However, his musical side took over and he returned to Paris to pursue musical studies. After composition studies with Charles-Marie Widor at the Paris Conservatoire he moved to Berlin and few years later to the United States.
In New York he met with many music enthusiasts who were willing to explore the boundaries of music. in 1921 he composed symphonic poem Amériques, followed by Hyperprism and Arcana which gradually led to his recognition. Promoting new instruments (e.g., theremin) and his science studies background became a cornerstone of his activities, attracting many contemporary figures in US and Europe. Due to his use of new and electronic resources Varèse has been considered as the “Father of Electronic Music” and had influenced many composers: Pierre Boulez, John Cage, Olivier Messiaen, Luigi Nono,  Krzysztof Penderecki, Alfred Schnittke,  Karlheinz Stockhausen, Iannis Xenakis, Frank Zappa and many others.